由于欧洲各国爆发了前所未有的禽流感疫情,法国名菜鹅肝酱不得不暂别多家米其林餐厅的菜单。和应对新冠疫情相似,鹅肝酱生产商现在急需做好两件事:家禽阻隔和接种疫苗。   Photo/Pexels   Fois gras, the French culinary jewel that is as delicious as it is controversial, is a staple of upscale restaurants across the country. But now it’s vanishing from menus during an ‘unprecedented’ crisis that has seen some manufacturers begin to consider reducing portions. 法国赋有争议的珍馐美食鹅肝酱是法国各地高档餐厅的主打菜品,但现在鹅肝酱却要从菜单上消失了,由于一场“前所未有的”危机正迫使一些鹅肝酱生产商考虑削减供货量。   At the heart of the problem is a bird flu epidemic that has been sweeping across the country — and Europe — for months. It’s already devastated the country’s poultry industry, but now it threatens one of the country’s greatest bastions: Its Michelin-starred restaurants. 这一危机的源头是几个月来一场席卷法国各地和欧洲其他国家的禽流感。这场禽流感现已击垮了法国的养禽业,但现在禽流感要挟到了法国最大的美食阵地之一——米其林餐厅。   ‘It’s been a month since we started to have less foie gras, and then this week we got none,’ says Pascal Lombard, the chef and owner of Le 1862, a one Michelin-star fine dining venue in bucolic southwestern France. 法国西南部的米其林乡野美食餐厅Le 1862的主厨兼老板帕斯卡尔·隆巴德说:“咱们鹅肝酱减量供给现已有一个月了,这周咱们彻底没有鹅肝酱了。”   Foie gras is no stranger to crises. 这并不是鹅肝酱第一次面对危机。   Its traditional production, involving the force feeding of geese and ducks, has long attracted condemnation from animal rights campaigners, who have succeeded in getting such methods banned elsewhere. 鹅肝酱的传统生产方法,包含填鸭式喂食鸭鹅,长期以来一向遭到动物权益倡议人士的斥责,受其影响其他一些当地现已摒弃了这种喂食方法。   Yet while French appetites for the delicacy have been largely undimmed by concerns over animal cruelty, another threat to avian welfare is now curbing consumption. 虽然大多数法国人对鹅肝酱的好食欲没有由于优待动物的忧虑而遭到影响,眼下家禽健康面对的另一个要挟却按捺了法国人对鹅肝酱的消费。   The town of Les Eyzies, where Lombard’s restaurant is located, is in the heart of Périgord, one of the epicenters of the latest bird flu epidemic. 隆巴德的餐厅地点的莱塞济镇坐落佩里戈尔的中心地带,而佩里戈尔是最近的一波禽流感疫情的中心之一。   The country has had to kill 16 million poultry since the epidemic first started in November 2021 to try to control the disease, the French Agriculture Ministry confirmed to CNN. 法国农业部向美国有线电视新闻网证明,2021年11月初次爆发禽流感之时,为了操控疫情法国被逼宰杀了1600万只家禽。   ‘This number is unprecedented for France, which had never been exposed to a crisis of such scale,’ said Marie-Pierre Pé, director of France’s interprofessional committee for foie gras producers. 法国鹅肝酱生产商专业委员会主任玛丽-皮埃尔·佩说:“宰杀的家禽数量在法国是前所未有的,法国从来没有经历过这么大规模的家禽危机。”   Foie gras production in France is expected to drop by up to 50% this year as the epidemic affects 80% of foie gras producers in the country. 由于疫情影响到了法国80%的鹅肝酱生产商,法国的鹅肝酱产值估计本年将削减多达50%。   A veteran of the foie gras industry with 35 years of experience, Pé is no stranger to avian influenza. Like seasonal outbreaks in the human world, bird flu hits Europe almost every year when birds migrate to and from Africa. 作为一位具有35年经历的鹅肝酱工业老将,佩对禽流感并不生疏。就和人类国际的季节性流感相同,简直每年在飞鸟自非洲迁徙往来时欧洲都会爆发禽流感。   This year the epidemic emerged in spring and reached the Pays de la Loire region in the west and Périgord territory in the southwest — two crucial poultry production areas in France. 本年春季禽流感在法国爆发后已蔓延至法国西部的卢瓦尔河区域和法国西南部的佩里戈尔,这两地都是法国的家禽主产区。   Pays de la Loire alone represents 72% of the ducks and geese hatched in France’s foie gras industry, according to Pé. 据佩介绍,单是卢瓦尔河区域就出产了法国鹅肝酱工业所需的72%的鸭鹅。   To make the situation worse, other major foie gras producing countries in Europe are also facing a similar crisis, making it hard to make up for the shortfall via imports. 落井下石的是,欧洲其他的鹅肝酱高产国也面对着相同的危机,这让法国无法经过进口来添补鹅肝酱缺口。   Bird flu has been detected across the European Union since October 2021, including in European Federation of Foie Gras member states Spain, Belgium, Bulgaria and Hungary, according to the latest European Commission report on the epidemic. 依据欧盟关于禽流感的最新陈述,自2021年10月以来欧盟各国就相继发现禽流感,包含欧洲鹅肝酱联盟会员国西班牙、比利时、保加利亚和匈牙利。   To bring the epidemic to an end and help production return to normal level in 2023, Pé and her fellow foie gras producers rely on two words that the Covid pandemic has made very familiar: isolation and vaccination. 为了完结禽流感,协助家禽产值在2023年回归到正常水平,佩和她的鹅肝酱生产商同行要依托两个由于新冠疫情而变得耳熟能详的词:阻隔和接种疫苗。   In areas where bird flu is detected, producers are sheltering ducks and geese to ensure that there is no contamination with migratory birds. 在检测到禽流感的区域,家禽生产商要给鸭鹅建立养殖舍,保证迁徙的飞鸟不会感染病毒给它们。   This requires producers to reduce the number of poultry at their farm so they have enough space indoors to accommodate them, according to Pé. 佩指出,生产商需求削减农场养殖的家禽数量,这样才有满足的室内空间来包容它们。   Two vaccine candidates are on clinical trial, but they won’t be available until 2023 at the earliest, Pé said. 佩说,现在有两种候选疫苗正在进行临床试验,但最早要到2023年才干上市。   Back in Les Eyzies in southwestern France, chef Lombard is working on new dishes to fill the void left by the foie gras shortage. 在法国西南部的莱塞济,主厨隆巴德正在研制新菜品以添补鹅肝酱供给严重留下的空白。   ‘2022 will be the year with a bit more vegetable dishes and less meat.’ Lombard said. 隆巴德说:“2022年将是菜多肉少的一年。”   英文来历:美国有线电视新闻网 翻译&修改:丹妮 责编:海闻